The term apartheid is mostly associated with legistalated racial discrimination ans segregation which took place in South Africa for nearly 50 years in the XX. century on eyes of the whole world. Although being for many already a closed chapter of humanity’s dark history, apartheid is a part of everyday’s reality to hundert thousands of people around the world nowadays.
It’s reasons vary regarding to area, from ethnic-political in Palestine-Israel conflict to post-slavery afthermath in South America, but it’s outcome stays the same. It is this social polarization between poor and rich that lays spatial (informal settlements vs. villas), cultural (social antagonism aka social apartheid) and economic (high-to very high HDI) boudries between each other. Yet, every party depends strongly on another, although this dependence is not oriented towards mutual win. In Latin America the problem is easily seen not only in spatial fencing-off in forms of gated community but predominantely widely understood rasism and severe act of human right’s violation, where the skin color migh be even an issue on getting to a public university. On occupied territories of Palestine or in Kashmir, the situation that evolved through out the time, disabled the normal daytime-life (READ: Kashmir & Palestine: Both Occupied, Both Victims Of The Military-Industrial Complex posted by MintPressNews on October 4, 2016).
Dark Secrets of Brazilian Paradise
Just Officially originated in early XX century, shortly after the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888. But in practice it was known long before, first during the initial phases of settlement in newly explored continent, when colonist, especially bandeiras, were capturing native Brazilian Indians or later bringing Africans to indigenous labour. Due to huge profits from cheap labour Brazil did not only abolish slavery as the last Western country but also during over 350 years brought more than 4,900 000 African slaves on the continent. For more than 4 centuries the great differences between colonially rooted elite wealthy class and Brazilian or African slavery underclass was the only one ruling asset in the country. Throw-out the time it created such an extreme gap between those two classes, resulting in urban and social segregation until nowadays. In 1920s “internal migrants from Brazil, many the descendants of Indians or African slaves, were totally abandoned to their own endeavours in the city, with no governmental subsidies, no programs of immigration support, no job training, and no housing programs to help the process of adaptation. In short, Brazilian migrants found themselves pushed into a social apartheid in the slums of the city, their jobs limited to those that white would not touch, such as garbage removal, hard construction work, and menial jobs in industry. In contrast, many European and Japanese immigrants came under the auspices of programs organized by their governments which assisted them with the cost of their transportation and of housing, helping them find employment, trained them, and provided a number of other benefits.” (Alves 2004: 202-203)
Nowadays the racial prejudice is still acknowledged by most of the Brazilians and relates to diverse spheres of life, including labour market or academic institutes. The most vivid example of racial injustice is observed in renown in Brazil police violence, which predominantly regards to non-whites. (cf. Telles, 2007)
“On average, black and brown (mulatto or mixed race) Brazilians earn half of the income of the white population. Most notably, the middle class and the elite are almost entirely white, so that Brazil’s well-known melting pot only exists among the working class and the poor. Non-white Brazilians were rarely found in the country’s top universities, until affirmative action began in 2001” (Telles, 2007).